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Questions  >>  CBSE XII  >>  Biology
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What are barrier methods of birth control? Explain.

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A)
a. Condoms: They are barriers made of thin rubber/latex sheath that are used to cover the ***** in the male or ****** and cervix in the female, just before the coitus so that ejaculated semen never enters into female reproductive tract. Both male and female condoms can be self-inserted, disposable thus giving privacy to the user.

b. Diaphragms, Cervical caps and Vaults: They are all barriers, made up of rubber and are inserted into the female reproductive tract to cover the cervix during coitus. They prevent conception by blocking the entry of the sperms through cervix and are reusable. Spermicidal creams, foams and gels are used along with these barriers to increase their contraceptive efficiency.

c. Use of intra uterine devices: These devices are inserted by doctors or expert nurses in the uterus through ******. These IUDs are presently available as:
* Non medicated IUDs- Lippes loop.
* Copper releasing IUDs- CuT, Multiload 375.
* Hormone releasing IUDs- Progestasert, LNG-20.
IUDs enhance phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus and $Cu^{2+}$ ions released suppress sperm motility and fertilizing capacity of sperms.

d. Use of contraceptive pills: Oral administration of small doses of either progesterone or progesterone, estrogen combinations is another method of contraception. They are used in the form of tablets and are called pills. Pills inhibit ovulation and implantation as well as alter the quality of cervical mucus to prevent/retard entry of sperms. Pills have less side effects and are preferred by female.
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