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Questions  >>  CBSE XII  >>  Biology
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Q)

Briefly explain the various reproductive technologies to assist an infertile couple to have children.

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A)
The couple can be assisted to have children through certain special techniques commonly known as assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

1. In vitro fertilisation (IVF) : Fertilization outside the body in almost similar conditions as that in the body, followed by embryo transfer (E.T.).

a. Test Tube baby Programme : Ova from the wife/donor female and sperm from husband/donor male are allowed to fuse under simulated condition in the laboratory.

b. ZIFT : Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer . Zygote or early embryo up to eight blastomeres is transferred into the fallopian tube.

c. IUT : Intra Uterine Transfer :Embryo with more than eight blasomeres is transferred.

2. Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer (GIFT): Transfer of an ovum collected from a donor to fallopian tube of another female who can not produce ova, but can provide suitable conditions for fertilization and further development of the foetus up to parturition.

3. Intra Cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): The sperm is directly injected into the ovum to form an embryo in the laboratory and then embryo transfer is carried out.

4. Artificial Insemination: This method is used in cases where infertility is due to the inability of the male partner to inseminate the female or due to very low sperm counts in the ejaculates. In this method, the semen collected from the husband or a healthy donor is artificially introduced into the ****** or into the uterus (IUI-Intra uterine insemination).
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