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Questions  >>  CBSE XII  >>  Biology

How do the natural, barriers, IUD's, Oral pills and Surgical methods help in Contraception? Explain.

1 Answer

The three methods of contraception are:
a. Natural methods
b. Barrier methods
c. Surgical methods

a. Natural methods
i. Periodic abstinence
ii. Withdrawal
iii. Lactational amenorrhea

Periodic abstinence: Couple avoid or abstain from coitus from days 10-17 of the menstrual cycle when ovulation is expected as the period is very fertile for conception.

Withdrawal or Coitus interruptus: The male partner withdraws his ***** from the ****** just before the ejaculation of the semen to avoid insemination.

Lactational amenorrhoea: During lactational period, after parturition, there would be a period where no ovulation occurs and hence no menstruation. Such a period is called lactational amenorrhea and is considered to be a safe period.

b. Barrier methods
i. Condoms
ii. Diaphragms, Cervical caps and Vaults
iii. Use of intra uterine devices
iv. Use of contraceptive pills

Condoms: They are barriers made of thin rubber/latex sheath that are used to cover the ***** in the male or ****** and cervix in the female, just before the coitus so that ejaculated semen never enters into female reproductive tract. Both male and female condoms can be self- inserted, disposable thus giving privacy to the user.

Diaphragms, Cervical caps and Vaults: They are all barriers, made up of rubber and are inserted into the female reproductive tract to cover the cervix during coitus. They prevent conception by blocking the entry of the sperms through cervix and are reusable. Spermicidal creams, foams and gels are used along with these barriers to increase their contraceptive efficiency.

Use of intra uterine devices: These devices are inserted by doctors or expert nurses in the uterus through ******. These IUDs are presently available as:
* Non medicated IUDs- Lippes loop.
* Copper releasing IUDs- CuT, Multiload 375.
*Hormone releasing IUDs- Progestasert, LNG-20.
IUDs enhance phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus and $Cu^{2+}$ ions released suppress sperm motility and fertilizing capacity of sperms.

Use of contraceptive pills: Oral administration of small doses of either progesterone or progesterone, estrogen combinations is another method of contraception. They are used in the form of tablets and are called pills. Pills inhibit ovulation and implantation as well as alter the quality of cervical mucus to prevent/retard entry of sperms. Pills have less side effects and are preferred by female.

c. Surgical methods:
i. Vasectomy
ii. Tubectomy
Surgical methods are also referred to as sterilization and can be done in both male and female partners. Surgical intervention blocks the gamete transport and therefore prevent conception. Sterilization procedure in males is called “Vasectomy‟ and in female”tubectomy‟ .
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