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Q)

Which are the species in which sulphur undergoes $sp^3$ hybridisation ?

$\begin{array}{1 1}(1)\;SF_4&(2)\;SCl_2\\(3)\;SO_4^{2-}&(4)\;H_2S\end{array}$

$\begin{array}{1 1}(a)\; 1\; and\; 3&(b)\; 2,3\; and\; 4\\(c)\; 1,2\; and\; 4&(d)\; 3 \;and\; 4\end{array}$

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A)
Toolbox:
  • HOW TO FIND HYBRIDIZATION OF CENTRAL ATOM & SHAPE OF MOLECULE?

    STEP-1: Write the Lewis structure
    $\quad \quad$ It is better to write the Lewis structural formula to get a rough idea about the structure of molecule and bonding pattern. Use the valence concept to arrive at this structure. Concentrate on the electron pairs and other atoms linked directly to the concerned atom.

    STEP-2: Calculate the number of sigma (σ) bonds
    Number of σ-bonds formed by the atom in a compound is equal to the number of other atoms with which it is directly linked to.

    STEP-3: Calculate the number of lone pairs
    Number of lone pairs $=\Large\frac{v-b-c}{2}$
    where,
    v = no. of valence electrons in the concerned atom in free state (i.e. before bond formation).
    b = no. of bonds (including both σ & π bonds) formed by concerned atom.
    c = charge on the atom (take care: it may not be the charge on entire molecule or ionic species).

    STEP-4: Calculate the steric number
    Steric number = no. of σ-bonds + no. of lone pairs

    STEP-5: Assign hybridization and shape of molecule
    Now, based on the steric number, it is possible to get the type of hybridization of the atom.

    table,th,td { border:1px solid black; border-collapse:collapse; } th,td { padding:5px; }
    Steric number Hybridization Structure
    2 $sp$ linear
    3 $sp_2$ trigonal planar
    4 $sp_3$ tetrahedral
    5 $sp_3d$ trigonal bipyramidal
    6 $sp_3d_2$ octahedral
    7 $sp_3d_3$ pentagonal bipyramidal
image image image image
2,3 and 4
Hence (b) is the correct answer.
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