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Q)

The male and the female gametophytes do not have an independent free-living existence and they remain within the sporangia retained on the sporophytes in

( a ) pteridophytes
( b ) gymnosperms
( c ) gymnosperms and pteridophytes
( d ) bryophytes

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A)
(B) is the right answer.

Unlike bryophytes and pteridophytes, in gymnosperms the male and the female gametophytes do not have an independent free-living existence. They remain within the sporangia retained on the sporophytes. In pteridophytes: The megaspores and microspores germinate and give rise to female and male gametophytes, respectively. The female gametophytes in these plants are retained on the parent sporophytes for variable periods. The development of the zygotes into young embryos take place within the female gametophytes. This event is a precursor to the seed habit considered an important step in evolution.
 
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A)
D- Bryophytes
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