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Which of the following groups are the following groups are ortho, para directing ? $ \\ (i) -NH_2 \quad\quad\quad (ii)\; -N-C -CH_3 \quad\quad\quad (iii)\;-CN \quad\quad\quad(iv)\; -SO_3H$

$ (a)\;(i)\; and\;(ii) \\ (b) \; (ii)\;and \;(iii) \\ (c) \;(i)\;and \;(iv) \\ (d)\;(ii)\;and (iv) $
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  • Ortho, para directing groups are electron-donating groups. Eg: $-OR, -NH_2 -R, -X$
  • Meta directing groups are electron-withdrawing groups. Eg: $-NO_2, -NO, -COR, -CN, -SO_3H$
  • This classification is based on the ability of substituent(s) to either withdraw or donate electron density to the attached carbon atom.
First atom of group attached to benzene ring having lone pair of electron will conjugate with $\pi$ electrons of benzene ring, hence these are 0, p-directing.
$ (i)\; and\;(ii)$
Hence a is the correct answer.
answered Feb 28, 2014 by meena.p
edited Mar 25, 2014 by mosymeow_1

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