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Which of the following correctly represents the $+I$ effect of the substituents :

$(a)\; O^- > COO^{-} > CR_3 \\(b)\; COO > O ^- > CR_3 \\(c)\;O^- < COO^{-} < CR_3  \\ (d)\; COO^{-} < O^{-} < CR_3 $

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Groups or atoms which donate electrons to the carbon chain are said to have electron releasing or +I effect.
So, $ O^- > COO^{-} > CR_3 $
Hence a is the correct answer.
answered Mar 3, 2014 by meena.p

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