( A ) pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, described by Schwartz and Cantor ( 1984)

( B ) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, described by Schwartz and Cantor ( 1984)

( C ) plasmid field gel electrophoresis, described by Schwartz and Cantor ( 1984)

( D ) pulsed-field gyratory electrophoresis, described by Cantor (1987)