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Q)

Although chlorine is an electron with drawing group , yet it is ortho- , Para - directing in electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction . Explain why it is so ?

$\begin{array}{1 1}\text{(a) Chlorine act as o, p directing group because of resonance.}\\\text{(b) Chlorine act as o, p directing group due to the presence of lone pair of protons .}\\\text{(c) Chlorine act as o, p directing group because of sp hybridization.}\\\text{(d) Chlorine act as o, p directing group because of inductive effect}\end{array} $

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A)
Solution :
Chlorine withdraws electrons through – I effect and donate electrons through + R effectc( Resonance). Chlorine act as o, p directing group beacuse of resonance. One of the lone pair of electrons of chlorine can conjugate to the ring and direct the electrophile to the ortho and para positions of the ring.
Also mesomeric effects is stronger than inductive effective.
As a result of resonance , there is delocalisation of electrons .
The ortho and para positions on the benzene ring are comparatively negative .
Hence , further substitution takes place at $o^{-}$ and $p{-}$ positions .
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