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Define aneuploidy. How is it different from polyploids? Describe the individuals having the followin

Define aneuploidy. How is it different from polyploids? Describe the individuals having the following chromosomal abnormalities. 
a. Trisomy of the $21^{st}$ chromosome. 
b. XXY
c. XO

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A)
Aneuploidy is a condition in which the number of chromosomes in the nucleus of the cells is not an exact multiple of the monoploid number of a particular species. An extra or missing chromosome is a common cause of genetic disorders including human birth defects. Euploidy is a condition of having more than two sets of chromosomes. Polyploidy occurs in nature due to failure of chromosomes to separate at the time of anaphase, either due to non disjunction or due to malformation of spindle.

a). TRISOMY OF THE $21^{st}$ CHROMOSOME : Result in Down's syndrome. Individual has a prominent forehead, lower hip with a large protruding tongue, skinfolds and corners of the eyes, malformed heart and under developed gonads and genitalia. 

b). XXY : Results in Klinefelter syndrome. Such an individual is a male in appearance with female characteristics. The person has long limbs, enlarged breasts, sparsely body hair and underdeveloped tests. Such individual is often sterile and mentally defective. 

c). XO  : Results in Turner's syndrome. Such individuals are underdeveloped females with a single X - chromosome. The females have rudimentary ovaries, shield shaped thorax, short stature and abnormal intelligence. Menstruation and ovulation do not happen in these females.
 
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