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Explain the Classification of detergents:

Explain the Classification of detergents:

1 Answer

(a)Anionic detergents: Anionic detergents are sodium salts of sulphonated long chain alcohols or hydrocarbons . Alkyl hydrogensulphates formed by treating long chain alcohols with concentrated sulphuric acid  are neutralised with alkali to form anionic detergents. Similarly alkyl benzene sulphonates are obtained by neutralising alkyl benzene sulphonic acids with alkali

(b) Cationic detergents: Cationic detergents are quarternary ammonium salts of amines  with acetates, chlorides or bromides as anions. Cationic parts possess a long hydrocarbon chain and a positive charge on nitrogen atom.

(c)Non- ionic detergents: They do not contain any ion in their constitution. They are like esters  of high molecular mass. Example: Detergent formed by condensation reaction between stearic acid reacts and polyethyleneglycol

answered Jul 11 by pady_1