# Protection against sudden thermal change is carried out by help of

$\begin{array}{1 1} (a)\;water \\ (b)\;salt \\ (c)\;ions \\ (d)\;bonds \end{array}$

Protection against sudden thermal change is carried out by help of water.In these vast varieties of environments, bacteria are exposed to a multitude of fluctuating stress factors, including sudden changes in temperature (heat and cold), changes.This stress response helps the bacterial cells to protect vital processes, to restore cellular homeostasis and to increase the cellular resistance against subsequent stress changes or thermal changes.